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The soldier caste has anatomical and behavioural specialisations, and their only real aim is to defend the colony. Many soldiers have large heads with exceptionally modified strong jaws so enlarged they cannot feed themselves. Instead, like juveniles, they're fed by employees.5556 Fontanelles, easy holes in the eyebrow which exude defensive secretions, are a characteristic of the family Rhinotermitidae.57 Many species have been easily identified using the characteristics of the soldiers' larger and darker head and large mandibles.53 Among certain termites, soldiers can utilize their globular (phragmotic) heads to block their narrow tunnels.58 Different sorts of soldiers include minor and significant soldiers, and nasutes, which have a horn-like nozzle frontal projection (a nasus).53 These unique soldiers can spray noxious, sticky secretions containing diterpenes in their enemies.59 Nitrogen fixation has an important role in nasute nutrition.60.
The reproductive caste of a mature colony includes a prosperous female and man, known as the queen and king.61 The queen of the colony is responsible for egg production for its colony. Unlike in ants, the king mates with her for life.62 In some species, the abdomen of the queen swells up radically to increase fecundity, a characteristic known as physogastrism.61 Depending on the species, the queen starts producing reproductive winged alates at a certain period of the year, and huge swarms emerge in the colony when nuptial flight begins.
A young termite nymph. Nymphs first moult into employees, but others may further moult to become soldiers or alates.
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Termites are often compared with all the social Hymenoptera (ants and various species of bees and wasps), but their differing evolutionary origins result in major differences in life cycle. In the eusocial Hymenoptera, the workers are entirely female. Males (drones) are haploid and develop from unfertilised eggs, while females (both workers and the queen) are diploid and grow from fertilised eggs.
Depending on species, both male and female workers may have different roles in a termite colony.63.
The entire life span of a termite begins with an egg, but is different from that of a bee or ant in that it goes through a developmental process called incomplete metamorphosis, with egg, nymph and adult stages.64 Nymphs resemble little adults, and undergo a series of moults as they grow.
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The development of nymphs into adults can take months; the time period depends on food availability, temperature, and the general population of the colony. Since nymphs are unable to feed themselves, workers must feed them, but employees also take part in the social life of their colony and also have certain different activities to achieve like foraging, building or maintaining the nest or tending to the queen.5367 Pheromones govern the caste system in termite colonies, preventing all but a very few of the termites from becoming fertile queens.68.
Termite alates only leave the colony when a nuptial flight takes place. Alate men and females pair up together and then land in search of a suitable place for linked here a colony.70 A termite king and queen do not mate until they find such a spot. When they do, they excavate a room big enough for both, shut up the entrance and proceed to mate.70 After mating, the set never go outdoors and spend the rest of their lives in the nest.
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By way of example, alates in certain species emerge during the daytime in summer while some emerge during the winter.71 The nuptial flight may also begin at dusk, when the alates swarm around areas with a great deal of lights. The time when nuptial flight begins depends on the environmental conditions, the time of day, humidity, wind speed and precipitation.71 The number of termites in a colony also varies, with the larger species typically having 1001,000 individuals.
The queen only lays 1020 eggs in the very early phases of the colony, but lays as many as 1,000 a day when the colony is a few years old.53 At adulthood, a primary queen has a fantastic capacity to lay eggs. In certain species, the adult queen has a greatly distended abdomen and may create 40,000 eggs a day.72 Both mature ovaries may have some 2,000 ovarioles every.73 The abdomen increases the queen's body length to several times greater than prior to mating and reduces her ability to move freely; attendant employees offer assistance.